If society is to achieve the ‘Net Zero by 2050’ goal then wind and solar are going to make up a large fraction of the total energy supply mix. As has been frequently pointed out, attractive though these energy sources may be, they have important limitations. In particular, they have a low energy density, and they are intermittent. Given that the sun is not always shining, nor the wind blowing, these two sources supply energy only about 35% of the time, and that they may not supply that energy at the time that it is most needed.
Therefore, if these energy sources are to truly useful it will be necessary to have large scale energy storage devices that can store the energy when it is provided, and that can deliver that energy to the end user as needed.
Lithium Battery. Credit: PIxabay
Thermal Energy Storage
Pumped Heat Electrical Storage
Liquid Air Energy Storage
Batteries — Utility Scale
Liquid Metal Batteries
The Smart Grid
Articles and Blogs
The following articles, blogs and videos provide more information on the topics discussed in this chapter.