Chapter 12:
Energy Storage

Abstract

If society is to achieve the ‘Net Zero by 2050’ goal then wind and solar are going to make up a large fraction of the total energy supply mix. As has been frequently pointed out, attractive though these energy sources may be, they have important limitations. In particular, they have a low energy density, and they are intermittent. Given that the sun is not always shining, nor the wind blowing, these two sources supply energy only about 35% of the time, and that they may not supply that energy at the time that it is most needed.

 

Therefore, if these energy sources are to truly useful it will be necessary to have large scale energy storage devices that can store the energy when it is provided, and that can deliver that energy to the end user as needed.

Lithium Battery. Credit: PIxabay

Contents

Abstract

Status

Background

Gravity 

Pumped Hydro

Weights

Hydrogen

Underground Storage

Hydrides

Nanotubes

Compressed Air

Thermal Energy Storage

Pumped Heat Electrical Storage

Liquid Air Energy Storage 

Batteries — Utility Scale

Lithium-ion Batteries

Liquid Metal Batteries

Red-Ox

Flywheels

The Smart Grid

Conclusions

Status

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